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  • Klingert, Sonja; Niederkofler, Michael; de Meer, Hermann; Bielig, Mona; Gagin, Stepan; Kacperski, Celina; Strobbe, Matthias (2023): The Best of both Worlds : Social and Technical Challenges of Creating Energy Islands KLEIN, Cornel, ed., Matthias JARKE, ed.. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Smart Cities and Green ICT Systems. Setúbal, Portugal: SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, 2023, pp. 129-136. ISSN 2184-4968. ISBN 978-989-758-651-4. Available under: doi: 10.5220/0011974600003491

    The Best of both Worlds : Social and Technical Challenges of Creating Energy Islands

    ×

    Creating so-called “energy islands” with a high level of energetic self-sufficiency is one strategy to fight climate crisis. To become a realistic goal, such a concept needs trans-disciplinary research that defines promising transformation paths towards reaching this vision. The presented paper introduces a conceptual framework that provides approaches for technical optimization across all energy vectors, socio-technical optimization of the usage of energy demand flexibility, socio-psychological interventions, and a replication strategy that considers all these different aspects. The focus lies on the architecture of a management system that answers requirements also from social sciences, on engagement strategies and on defining a cross-vector, cross-disciplinary design for flexibility in terms of demand-response schemes.

  • Taxation of Top Incomes and Tax Avoidance

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    This paper studies the aggregate and distributional effects of raising the top marginal income tax rate in the presence of tax avoidance. To this end, we develop a quantitative macroeconomic model with heterogeneous agents and occupational choice in which entrepreneurs can avoid taxes in two ways. On the extensive margin, entrepreneurs can choose the legal form of their business organization to reduce their tax burden. On the intensive margin, entrepreneurs can shift their income between different tax bases. In a quantitative application to the US economy, we find that tax avoidance lowers productive efficiency, generates sizable welfare losses, and reduces the effectiveness of the top marginal tax rate at lowering inequality. Tax avoidance reduces the optimal top marginal income tax rate from 47 % to 43 %.

  • Reinwald, Max; Zaia, Johannes; Kunze, Florian (2023): Shine Bright Like a Diamond : When Signaling Creates Glass Cliffs for Female Executives Journal of Management. Sage Publications. 2023, 49(3), pp. 1005-1036. ISSN 0149-2063. eISSN 1557-1211. Available under: doi: 10.1177/01492063211067518

    Shine Bright Like a Diamond : When Signaling Creates Glass Cliffs for Female Executives

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    There is mixed support for the glass cliff hypothesis that firms will more likely appoint female candidates into top management positions when in crisis. We trace the inconsistent findings back to an underdeveloped theoretical link and deficient identification strategies. Using signaling theory, we suggest that crisis firms appoint female top managers to signal change to the market and argue that the effect is context-dependent. In a field study of 26,156 executive appointments in U.S. firms between 2000 and 2016, we exploit a regression discontinuity to test for the causal impact of firm crisis status on the likelihood of female top management appointments and for moderators of the effect. We find that crisis status leads to a significant increase in female top management appointments and that crisis (vs. noncrisis) firms are more likely to frame female appointments as change-related in press releases. Importantly, the presence of the glass cliff effect hinges on attributes of the signaler (absence of another female executive), signal (appointment type), and receiver (investor attention). The findings robustly evidence the glass cliff and our theoretical extensions.

  • Nemčok, Miroslav; Bosancianu, Constantin Manuel; Leshchenko, Olga; Kluknavská, Alena (2023): Softening the corrective effect of populism : populist parties’ impact on political interest West European Politics. Taylor & Francis. 2023, 46(4), pp. 760-787. ISSN 0140-2382. eISSN 1743-9655. Available under: doi: 10.1080/01402382.2022.2089963

    Softening the corrective effect of populism : populist parties’ impact on political interest

    ×

    dc.title:


    dc.contributor.author: Nemčok, Miroslav; Bosancianu, Constantin Manuel; Kluknavská, Alena

  • Garritzmann, Julian L.; Garritzmann, Susanne (2023): Why Globalization Hardly Affects Education Systems : A Historical Institutionalist View MATTEI, Paola, ed., Xavier DUMAY, ed., Éric MANGEZ, ed., Jacqueline BEHREND, ed.. The Oxford Handbook of Education and Globalization. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2023, pp. 554-C26P159. ISBN 978-0-19-757068-5. Available under: doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780197570685.013.24

    Why Globalization Hardly Affects Education Systems : A Historical Institutionalist View

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    Many scholars and observers have assumed that globalization triggers convergence in many areas, including education policy and systems. Yet, while some change has happened, the central elements of countries’ education systems have been relatively unaffected by globalization. This chapter explains this inertia, pointing at the politics of education. Taking a historical institutionalist perspective, the chapter shows that education systems have created positive feedback effects generating path dependencies which make education systems increasingly resilient to change. A review and discussion of recent research underpin this reasoning, identifying three mechanisms, through public opinion, interest groups, and political elites, respectively.

  • Ethnic Organizations Online

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    Digital media form an integral part of political actors' communication strategies. They leverage personal websites, Facebook pages, Twitter profiles, and Instagram accounts to disseminate information, communicate policy positions, and mobilize followers. Through digital media, politicians, political parties, and nongovernmental organizations alike are able to reach potentially massive audiences as nearly half the world's population is now connected to the Internet. Compared to other, more traditional media, digital media enable cost-effective, direct, two-way communication with diverse audiences. For political organizations that claim to represent specific ethnic groups, these information channels open up new opportunities and means to achieve their goals. Investigating their activities in the digital space constitutes the topic of this dissertation.



    In the first paper (co-authored with Nils B. Weidmann), I present a new dataset for this purpose. It enables researchers to track the online activities of ethnic organizations. The Ethnic Organizations Online (EO2) database systematically captures Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram profiles as well as websites of political organizations with links to ethnic groups in 90 countries. I demonstrate the value of this dataset in three applications: First, I am able to show that separatist organizations are more likely to use Twitter than organizations without secessionist goals. Moreover, I find that organizations in autocracies invest fewer resources into their social media activity as elections approach. Finally, I compare organizations in power to those with opposition status: the former tend to communicate less about political phenomena and activities.



    In the second paper (co-authored with Lea Haiges), I examine the content of political communication online, in particular how elections and party competition influence the use of ethnic identity appeals. The basis for this work is provided by hand-coding more than 9000 Facebook and Twitter posts. Based on this data, I train machine learning models that automatically detect identity appeals in over 2~000~000 million social media posts. Analyzing this data with regression models, I find the following: The closer an election, the higher the likelihood that an ethnic party will appeal to ethnic identities. In addition, I show that when more ethnic parties participate in a particular election, this results in a higher number of ethnic identity appeals. Both results provide evidence on axiomatic assumptions of theories of ethnic politics.



    In the third paper, I turn to the effects of ethnic organizations' digital communication. I investigate whether individuals' who are exposed to references to ethnic identities online leads to increased identification with those very identities. To study this, I collect more than 200~000 Facebook comments authored in reply to 8000 Facebook posts of ethnic parties. I show that these parties face incentives to mention ethnic identities as this increases the reach of their posts. Their comment sections are more likely to feature comments with negative emotions, references to ethnic identities, and even toxic content. However, I find no evidence that these results extend to citizens' attitudes on the ground.



    In summary, this dissertation offers important insights into the digital, political communication of ethnic organizations. It shows that these actors use social media strategically to achieve their goals -- although adoption of platforms has not been universal. However, when ethnic organizations take to social media the electoral context plays an important role. Moreover, ethnic organizations' digital communications carry wide-ranging implications in the digital space, as it can lead to more toxic language and negative comments. Although their offline impact remains unclear, the data collected in this dissertation provides a valuable starting point for further research.

  • The Political Economy of Domestic and External Sovereign Debt

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    This paper explores the political and distributional consequences of sovereign debt and default taking into account that a sizable share of public debt is held by domestic creditors. We develop a quantitative macroeconomic model in which heterogeneous households face idiosyncratic income risk and save in non-state-contingent government bonds. Debt contracts are not enforceable and the government is politically constrained in its policy choices: A fiscal plan is required to receive the support of the majority of households. If neither fiscal plan is approved, the government has to default and to restructure domestic and external debt. Debt crises are characterized by a political conflict. In the course of a crisis, rising debt service costs force the government to cut redistributive spending. While wealthy households benefit from high interest rates on their savings, poor households support a default. Consequently, the approval of the fiscal plan decreases and the likelihood of a political default rises. Political constraints generate sizable welfare costs highlighting that individuals do not internalize the impact of their voting on interest rates and redistributive spending in equilibrium.

  • Korman, Benjamin A. (2023): Could classic psychedelics influence immigrants’ acculturation process? : A narrative review contemplating how Drug Science, Policy and Law. Sage. 2023, 9. ISSN 2050-3245. eISSN 2050-3245. Available under: doi: 10.1177/20503245231191400

    Could classic psychedelics influence immigrants’ acculturation process? : A narrative review contemplating how

    ×

    Rising international migration, paired with increasing public support for far-right political parties, poses a growing challenge to the countries tasked with successfully integrating immigrants into their society. Further complicating this matter is the fact that the acculturation process which immigrants undergo to fully integrate into their host society can be long, difficult, and taxing to their mental health, physical health, and sense of belonging. A better understanding of how the unique burdens faced by immigrants might be alleviated or more easily processed is therefore vital for the success of both immigrants and their host countries. Drawing on initial findings suggesting that classic psychedelics can help individuals process incidents of discrimination, make healthier decisions, and experience deeper feelings of connectedness to others, this literature review presents a roadmap for determining what classic psychedelics may offer immigrants, a large and rapidly growing international minority group.

  • Die heilige Kuh des deutschen Steuerrechts : Wie sich das verzerrte Bild von der Entfernungspauschale korrigieren ließe

    ×

    Die Entfernungspauschale ist beliebt als Instrument zur Senkung


    der eigenen Steuerlast. Dabei ist sie doppelt problematisch: Sie


    verstärkt die Verteilungsungleichheit und wirkt sich negativ auf


    Umwelt und Klima aus. In diesem Policy Paper zeigen wir, dass


    diese Zusammenhänge häufig nicht richtig wahrgenommen


    werden. Erhalten Bürger*innen jedoch objektive Informationen


    über die Verteilungs- und Umweltwirkungen, so erhöht dies ihre


    Zustimmung zu Vorschlägen für eine Reform der Pauschale. Eine


    solche Wahrnehmungskorrektur könnte ein Hebel sein, um die


    Unterstützung für eine Reform zu erhöhen und die Entfernungspauschale


    sozial wie ökologisch nachhaltiger zu gestalten.

  • The Politics of Redistribution and Sovereign Default

    ×

    This paper studies how distributional and electoral concerns shape sovereign default incentives within a quantitative model of sovereign debt with heterogeneous agents and non-linear income taxation. The small open economy is characterized by a two-party system in which the left-wing party has a larger preference for redistribution than the right-wing party. Political turnover is the endogenous outcome of the electoral process. Fiscal policy faces a tradeoff: On the one hand, the government has incentives to finance redistribution via external debt to avoid distortionary income taxation. On the other hand, the accumulation of external debt raises the cost of borrowing. Quantitative findings suggest that the left-wing party implements a more progressive income tax, is more prone to default, and has a lower electoral support than the right-wing party due to worse borrowing conditions and the distortionary effects of income taxation. In equilibrium, electoral uncertainty raises sovereign default risk.

  • Busemeyer, Marius R.; Tober, Tobias (2023): Dealing with Technological Change : Social Policy Preferences and Institutional Context Comparative Political Studies. Sage Publications. 2023, 56(7), pp. 968-999. ISSN 0010-4140. eISSN 1552-3829. Available under: doi: 10.1177/00104140221139381

    Dealing with Technological Change : Social Policy Preferences and Institutional Context

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    How does technological change affect social policy preferences across different institutional contexts? In this paper, we argue that individuals who perceive high levels of technology-related employment risks prefer passive policies like unemployment benefits over active measures like retraining in order to satisfy the need for immediate compensation in the case of job loss. At the same time, general support for passive (active) policy solutions to technological change should be significantly lower (higher) in countries where generous compensation schemes already exist. As the perception of technology-related employment risks increases, however, we expect that social policy preferences among high-risk individuals should converge across different welfare state contexts. We use novel data from a diverse set of 24 OECD countries that specifically measure preferred social policy solutions to technological change in a constrained choice scenario. Applying statistical methods that explicitly model the trade-off faced by individuals, we find evidence in line with our theoretical expectations.

  • Gendered Effects of the Minimum Wage

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    Women are more likely to work in jobs with low hours than men. Low-hour jobs are associated with lower hourly wages and are more likely impacted by minimum wages that set a floor on hourly wages. We document that the first German minimum wage significantly increased women’s transition towards jobs with higher weekly hours. We construct and estimate an equilibrium search model with demographic and firm productivity heterogeneity. The model replicates observed gender gaps in employment, hours and wage and the positive relationship between hours and hourly wages. We implement the minimum wage in our model with a penalty to address non-compliance. Based on our model, the minimum wage primarily reduces the gender income gap through the gender wage gap. At its 2022 level, the German minimum wage reduces the gender employment and hours gap due to an upward reallocation effect, resulting in women’s increased participation in higher-hour jobs with lower separation rates. The upward reallocation effect is the strongest for women with children and varies by marital state and spousal income. While the minimum wage only modestly discourages firms from posting jobs, it shifts job offers toward full-time positions.

  • Exzellenzcluster „The Politics of Inequality“ (Eds.) (2023): Information, Sprache, Macht

    Information, Sprache, Macht

    ×

    dc.title:


    dc.contributor.editor: Exzellenzcluster „The Politics of Inequality“

  • Lloyd-Smith, Anika; Bergmann, Fabian; Hund, Laura; Kupisch, Tanja (2023): Can policies improve language vitality? : The Sámi languages in Sweden and Norway Frontiers in Psychology. Frontiers. 2023, 14, 1059696. eISSN 1664-1078. Available under: doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1059696

    Can policies improve language vitality? : The Sámi languages in Sweden and Norway

    ×

    Introduction: Language policies are often aimed at changing language behaviours, yet it is notoriously difficult to assess their effects. This study investigates language use and competence in the Indigenous Sámi populations of Norway and Sweden in light of the national-level policies the two countries have adopted.



    Methods: We provide a cross-country comparison of relevant educational, linguistic and budgetary policies in Sweden and Norway. Next, we present novel data from a survey with 5,416 Sámi and non-Sámi participants in 20 northern municipalities, examining Sámi language use and proficiencies across generations and contexts. Lexical proficiency in North Sámi was tested in a small subset of participants.



    Results: Sámi language use has dropped considerably over the past three generations. Only a small proportion of Sámi are highly fluent and use a Sámi language with their children (around 4% in Sweden and 11% in Norway). One fifth of Sámi adults use a Sámi language at least ‘occasionally’, and use is most common in the home context. Sámi language knowledge remains negligible in the majority population.



    Discussion: The higher levels of language use and proficiency in Norway seem at least in part to reflect the more favourable policies adopted there. In both countries, more work is needed to increase speaker numbers, also in the majority population.

  • Hecht, Katharina; McArthur, Daniel (2023): Moving on up? : How Social Origins Shape Geographic Mobility within Britain’s Higher Managerial and Professional Occupations Sociology. Sage. 2023, 57(3), pp. 659-681. ISSN 0038-0385. eISSN 1469-8684. Available under: doi: 10.1177/00380385221113669

    Moving on up? : How Social Origins Shape Geographic Mobility within Britain’s Higher Managerial and Professional Occupations

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    This article presents the first longitudinal analysis of social and geographic mobility into Britain’s higher managerial and professional occupations. Using linked census records from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study, we find that those from advantaged social origins are substantially more likely to make long-distance residential moves, implying that geographic mobility is a correlate of advantaged social origins rather than a determinant of an advantaged adult class position. Among higher managers and professionals, those with advantaged backgrounds lived in more affluent areas as children than those from disadvantaged backgrounds. This ‘area gap’ persists during adulthood: when the upwardly mobile move, they are unable to close the gap to their peers with privileged backgrounds in terms of the affluence of the areas they live in: they face a moving target. Geographic advantage, and disadvantage, thus lingers with individuals, even if they move.

  • Gloomy prospects : The Konstanz Inequality Barometer shows that inequality is perceived to have increased

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    Data from the new wave of the Konstanz Inequality Barometer shows that people in Germany perceive a widespread increase of inequality in income and wealth and barely distinguish between income and wealth inequality. This is despite the fact that wealth inequality is significantly larger than income inequality. At the same time, the actual level of inequality is still underestimated in some respects. Concerning the prospects of the younger generation, many people, especially supporters of the right-wing populist AfD, are rather negative. Less pessimism is found among supporters of the center-right parties, CDU/CSU and FDP.

  •   31.07.24  
    Kawerau, Lukas; Weidmann, Nils B.; Dainotti, Alberto (2023): Attack or Block? : Repertoires of Digital Censorship in Autocracies Journal of Information Technology & Politics. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. 2023, 20(1), pp. 60-73. ISSN 1933-1681. eISSN 1933-169X. Available under: doi: 10.1080/19331681.2022.2037118

    Attack or Block? : Repertoires of Digital Censorship in Autocracies

    ×

    Online censorship has become a common feature in autocracies. Previous work has investigated different online censorship tactics such as website blocking or cyberattacks independently. In reality, however, autocratic governments rely on a repertoire of censorship techniques to control online communication, which they are likely to use depending on the respective political situation on the ground. In this article, we study the interplay of different online censorship techniques empirically. Focusing on new Internet measurement techniques and large existing datasets, we study the relationship between website blocking and cyberattacks (Denial-of-Service). Our results provide evidence that autocrats select tactics from their censorship repertoire depending on the current level of contention. During quiet times, we find some evidence that governments rely on different censorship tactics in parallel. In weeks with protest, however, website blocking is negatively associated with Denial-of-Service attacks against opposition websites. This shows that when the stakes are high, autocrats become more selective in their use of censorship.

  • Wagner, Patrick; Raess, Damian (2023): South to north investment linkages and decent work in Brazil Labour. Wiley. 2023, 37(1), pp. 122-159. ISSN 1121-7081. eISSN 1467-9914. Available under: doi: 10.1111/labr.12239

    South to north investment linkages and decent work in Brazil

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    Over the last 25 years, the BRICs asserted themselves as drivers of globalization. But what does their new-found prominence mean for working conditions at home? Using a novel sub-national database covering outward investment linkages and working conditions in Brazilian municipalities, this study tests whether a direct investment in Europe leads to the introduction of decent working conditions in Brazil. The empirical results provide strong support for the investing-up effect using a mixture of panel data analysis and text analysis. The results suggest that economic integration with high-standard developed countries can act as a powerful mechanism for labor standard improvements in developing countries.

  •   31.01.25  
    Busemeyer, Marius R.; Gandenberger, Mia; Knotz, Carlo; Tober, Tobias (2023): Preferred policy responses to technological change : Survey evidence from OECD countries Socio-Economic Review. Oxford University Press. 2023, 21(1), pp. 593-615. ISSN 1475-1461. eISSN 1475-147X. Available under: doi: 10.1093/ser/mwac015

    Preferred policy responses to technological change : Survey evidence from OECD countries

    ×

    How do the labor market risks associated with technological change affect policy preferences? We argue that higher perceptions of technology-related risks should increase support for compensation and decrease support for social investment. We expect the opposite effect for individuals who use technology constantly at work, have a university degree and earn higher incomes. However, as the perception of technology-related employment risks in the latter group of individuals increases, so does their preference for compensatory and protective policy solutions to technological change. Our expectations are confirmed by novel data from a survey of 24 diverse Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries that includes specifically designed questions on technology-related risks and policy preferences. The results suggest that technology-related risks not only correlate with certain demographic and occupational characteristics, but also cross-cut them. Thus, technology-related risks might not only become a source of new cleavages between the losers and winners of technological change, but also the basis for new cross-class coalitions.

  • Busemeyer, Marius R. (2023): Financing the welfare state in times of extreme crisis : public support for health care spending during the Covid-19 pandemic in Germany Journal of European Public Policy. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. 2023, 30(1), pp. 21-40. ISSN 1350-1763. eISSN 1466-4429. Available under: doi: 10.1080/13501763.2021.1977375

    Financing the welfare state in times of extreme crisis : public support for health care spending during the Covid-19 pandemic in Germany

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    Employing new and original survey data collected in three waves (April/May and November 2020 as well as May 2021) in Germany, this paper studies the dynamics of individual-level support for additional health care spending. A first major finding is that, so far, health care spending preferences have not radically changed during the Covid-19 pandemic, at least at the aggregate level. A more detailed analysis reveals, secondly, that individual-level support for additional spending on health care is strongly conditioned by performance perceptions and, to a lesser extent, general political trust. Citizens who regard the system as badly (well) prepared to cope with the crisis are more likely to support (oppose) additional spending. Higher levels of political trust are also positively associated with spending support, but to a lesser degree. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of these findings for policy-making and welfare state politics in the post-pandemic era.

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