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20 / 599
  • Parität, Transparenz, Familienfreundlichkeit : Wie sich der Gender Pay Gap in Deutschland reduzieren ließe

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    Der Gender Pay Gap lag in Deutschland im Jahr 2023 bei 18 Prozent. Damit blieb der Wert im fünften Jahr in Folge unverändert, obwohl Frauen in derselben Zeit zunehmend gut bezahlte Berufe ausübten. Diese anhaltende Lohnlücke zwischen Männern und Frauen wirft Fragen nach Ursachen und Gegenmaßnahmen auf. In diesem Policy Paper analysieren wir die Gehälter von 1.780.008 Erwerbspersonen, um den Einfluss von arbeitsmarktrelevanten Eigenschaften der Arbeitnehmer:innen, den Merkmalen der anstellenden Unternehmen sowie der politischen Rahmenbedingungen auf den Gender Pay Gap zu verstehen. Auf Basis unserer Erkenntnisse formulieren wir Handlungsempfehlungen für Arbeitnehmer:innen, Unternehmen und die Politik, wie sich der Gender Pay Gap effektiv reduzieren ließe.

  • Raess, Damian; Wagner, Patrick (2024): The "Social Europe" Effect : Does Southern Foreign Direct Investment in Europe Improve Labor Rights in the Global South? International Interactions. Taylor & Francis. 2024, 50(2), pp. 209-242. ISSN 0305-0629. eISSN 1547-7444. Available under: doi: 10.1080/03050629.2024.2310005

    The "Social Europe" Effect : Does Southern Foreign Direct Investment in Europe Improve Labor Rights in the Global South?

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    Trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) relations between developing and developed countries can lead to ratcheting-up of labor standards. Past research, however, has relegated developing countries to a passive role in the global economy while simultaneously largely ignoring variation between developed countries’ degree of protection of labor rights. In this study, we consider FDI by developing countries into Europe and how it can lead to labor upgrading. We argue that the obligations to upgrade implied by Europe’s regulatory environment will pressure developing country firms with strategic asset-seeking FDI to upgrade their practices which can subsequently diffuse in their home countries. We tease out this specific mechanism from others through a comparative research design juxtaposing FDI into high standard social Europe and the relatively low standard United States for a panel of 122 developing countries in the period 2001–2010. Our analysis compares how FDI into each location affects both collective and individual labor rights, finding that FDI into “Social Europe" leads to the improvement of labor standards, particularly trade union rights and substantive rights relating to working conditions, while there is no such upgrading effect for FDI into the United States. These findings are robust to multiple specifications, including an innovative application of the measurement strategy in studies on trading-/investing-up effects. This research helps us to understand two underappreciated facets of this latest phase of globalization: the rise of developing countries as agents of global integration and how regulatory disparities between potential economic partners can affect labor upgrading in those same developing countries. Any weakening of the European social model should consider its external consequences.

  •   31.03.26  
    Scholl, Almuth (2024): The politics of redistribution and sovereign default Journal of International Economics. Elsevier. 2024, 148, 103876. ISSN 0022-1996. eISSN 1873-0353. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.jinteco.2023.103876

    The politics of redistribution and sovereign default

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    This paper studies how distributional and electoral concerns shape sovereign default incentives within a quantitative model of sovereign debt with heterogeneous agents and non-linear income taxation. The small open economy is characterized by a two-party system in which the left-wing party has a larger preference for redistribution than the right-wing party. Political turnover is the endogenous outcome of the electoral process. Fiscal policy faces a tradeoff: On the one hand, the government has incentives to finance its spending via external debt to avoid distortionary income taxation. On the other hand, the accumulation of external debt raises the cost of borrowing. Quantitative findings suggest that the left-wing party implements a more progressive income tax, is more prone to default, and has a lower electoral support than the right-wing party due to worse borrowing conditions and the distortionary effects of income taxation. In equilibrium, electoral uncertainty raises sovereign default risk.

  • Ahrens, Leo (2024): The impact of public opinion on voting and policymaking : Is public opinion exogenous or endogenous? Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft. Springer. 2024, 34(1), S. 77-100. ISSN 1430-6387. eISSN 2366-2638. Verfügbar unter: doi: 10.1007/s41358-024-00366-w

    The impact of public opinion on voting and policymaking : Is public opinion exogenous or endogenous?

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    This literature review investigates the effects of public opinion on political outcomes in democracies, focusing on Comparative Political Economy (CPE) research. Many CPE researchers expect that parties and governments respond to public policy preferences that are exogenous to the political process. This review first formalizes the common CPE argument and then derives an alternative theoretical perspective from political psychology and political communication research. The contrasting theory highlights the impreciseness and endogeneity of public opinion, wherein political elites actively shape public sentiment. Through a comparative analysis of these contrasting theoretical approaches, the review extracts insights that promise to enrich future CPE research. It also develops the fundamentals of a theory on the impact of public opinion on political outcomes, which suggests that public opinion can be seen as an “elastic corridor” that constrains the opportunity space of parties.

  •   26.02.26  
    Semyonov, Moshe; Gorodzeisky, Anastasia; Raijman, Rebeca; Hinz, Thomas (2024): Endorsement of Wage Discrimination against Immigrants : Results from a Multifactorial Survey Experiment in Israeli Society Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. Elsevier. 2024, 89, 100891. ISSN 0276-5624. eISSN 1878-5654. Verfügbar unter: doi: 10.1016/j.rssm.2024.100891

    Endorsement of Wage Discrimination against Immigrants : Results from a Multifactorial Survey Experiment in Israeli Society

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    In the present research we examine, first, the extent to which the Israeli public endorse wage-gaps between immigrants and comparable non-immigrant workers (employed in. identical low-wage jobs), and second, whether the endorsement of wage discrimination against immigrants is associated with immigrants’ characteristics. Data for the analysis were obtained from a representative sample of the Jewish population in Israel (N=600). We implemented a multifactorial survey experiment design including immigrants’ characteristics such as continent of origin, education, religion, and reason for migration. The experimental setup contained 252 vignettes. Vignette decks were randomly assigned to the respondents for evaluation of the fairness of the wage-gaps between immigrants and comparable non-immigrant workers. Analysis of the data leads to a twofold conclusion. First, justification of wage discrimination against immigrants is widespread. Second, justification of wage discrimination is influenced by immigrants’ characteristics, being most pronounced (even extreme) in the case of clearly defined “outgroup” populations (Muslims and Christians, asylum seekers and labor migrants) and least pronounced in the case of immigrants belonging to the dominant “in-group” population (Jews and repatriates). In addition, endorsement of discrimination tends to increase with respondents’ levels of prejudice, fear of cultural change, and economic threat. The findings and their meaning are discussed in light of theories on economic discrimination.

  • Baute, Sharon (2024): The distributive politics of the green transition : a conjoint experiment on EU climate change mitigation policy Journal of European Public Policy. Taylor & Francis. ISSN 1350-1763. eISSN 1466-4429. Available under: doi: 10.1080/13501763.2024.2304609

    The distributive politics of the green transition : a conjoint experiment on EU climate change mitigation policy

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    In the fight against climate change, the European Union has developed a new growth strategy to transform Europe into the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. To support EU member states in their transition towards greener economies, climate change mitigation policies are being implemented at the EU-level. However, such policies can be designed in different ways, and gaining citizens’ support is crucial for the political feasibility of the European green transition. Drawing on data from an original conjoint experiment conducted in Germany (N = 5,796), this article investigates how policy design shapes public support for EU climate change mitigation. To this end, the study theoretically and empirically distinguishes four policy dimensions that address the distributive politics of the European green transition: sectoral scope, social spending, financing structure and cross-country distribution. The results confirm that all four policy dimensions significantly impact public support. Specifically, the study reveals that support is greatest for EU policy packages that target financial support at the renewable energy sector, include social investment policies, are financed by increasing taxes on the rich, and distribute resources across EU member states based on population size. Furthermore, citizens’ sensitivity to the policy design varies slightly by income position, left-right ideology and climate attitudes.

  • ECMI Minorities Blog: Indigenous Inequalities in Egalitarian Societies : The Case of the Sámi People in Norway and Sweden

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    Many Indigenous peoples live in firmly unequal societies and face substantial material disparities towards the ethnic majority populations. Yet, inequalities between ethnic groups are usually multidimensional and go beyond material status. But are they also present when economic inequality is absent? That is, what kind of inequalities do Indigenous peoples face in societies conventionally considered egalitarian? This blog post reports on new research about the situation of the Sámi people in Norway and Sweden. It indeed supports the proposition that the Sámi are on a material par with their non-Indigenous compatriots. Nonetheless, they are more likely to experience discrimination, and these experiences are strongly linked to how proficient Sámi are in their Indigenous languages and how frequently they use them. This shows that the Sámi face inequalities especially in the dimension of cultural status. Finally, the post points out potential further inequalities in the case of the Sámi that research has yet to address.

  • Nguyen, Quynh; Spilker, Gabriele; Koubi, Vally; Böhmelt, Tobias (2024): How sudden- versus slow-onset environmental events affect self-identification as an environmental migrant : Evidence from Vietnamese and Kenyan survey data PLOS ONE. Public Library of Science (PLoS). 2024, 19(1), e0297079. eISSN 1932-6203. Available under: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0297079

    How sudden- versus slow-onset environmental events affect self-identification as an environmental migrant : Evidence from Vietnamese and Kenyan survey data

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    In response to changing climatic conditions, people are increasingly likely to migrate. However, individual-level survey data reveal that people mainly state economic, social, or political reasons as the main drivers for their relocation decision–not environmental motives or climate change specifically. To shed light on this discrepancy, we distinguish between sudden-onset (e.g., floods and storms) and slow-onset (e.g., droughts and salinity) climatic changes and argue that the salience of environmental conditions in individuals’ migration decisions is shaped by the type of climate event experienced. Empirically, we combine individual-level surveys with geographic information on objective climatic changes in Vietnam and Kenya. The empirical evidence suggests that sudden-onset climate events make individuals more likely to link environmental conditions to their migration decision and, hence, to identify themselves as “environmental migrants.” Regression analyses support these results and are consistent with the view that slow-onset events tend to be linked with migration decisions that are more economically motivated.

  • Holzer, Boris (2024): Unverhandelte Tarife und ein Imageproblem Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung. 14. Jan. 2024, No. 2, pp. 56

    Unverhandelte Tarife und ein Imageproblem

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    dc.title:

  • Bergmann, Fabian (2024): Divided Attitudes Toward Rectifying Injustice : How Preferences for Indigenous Policies Differ Between the Indigenous and Majority Populations of Norway and Sweden The Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics. Cambridge University Press. 2024, 9(1), S. 1-25. eISSN 2056-6085. Verfügbar unter: doi: 10.1017/rep.2023.38

    Project : “Ethnic policies” – remedy for between-group inequalities?

    Divided Attitudes Toward Rectifying Injustice : How Preferences for Indigenous Policies Differ Between the Indigenous and Majority Populations of Norway and Sweden

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    Most states acknowledge the significance of Indigenous rights to rectify past injustices. Yet, on the domestic level, the realization of these rights depends on national policies. For democratic societies, questions about public opinion toward Indigenous policies are thus of great interest but remain largely unstudied. To what extent does the ethnic majority support policies conducive to Indigenous rights realization? And how different are the Indigenous population’s policy preferences? I use original experimental data from a vignette study to investigate these questions in the case of the Sámi people in Norway and Sweden. I hypothesize that groups’ attitudes are shaped by policies’ potential to alter the social status hierarchy between the majority and Indigenous populations. The results provide a nuanced picture. The ethnic majority shows significantly less support for policies facilitating Sámi linguistic, self-governance, and territorial rights. While the Sámi have, in general, more positive attitudes toward such policies, their support seems to be less pronounced than the majority’s resistance. Moreover, as attitudes are surprisingly similar when compared between Norway and Sweden, a country’s existing policy context does not appear to be crucial in the formation of these preferences.

  • Student Opinions on the Escalation of Violence in Israel and Gaza and Antisemitism at German Universities

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  • Between Beveridge and Bismarck : Preferences for Redistribution through Public Pensions

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  • Blake, Daniel J.; Markus, Stanislav; Martinez‐Suarez, Julio (2024): Populist Syndrome and Nonmarket Strategy Journal of Management Studies. Wiley. 2024, 61(2), pp. 525-560. ISSN 0022-2380. eISSN 1467-6486. Available under: doi: 10.1111/joms.12859

    Populist Syndrome and Nonmarket Strategy

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    Although recognized as a defining feature of the current political era, populism and its implications for non-market strategy remain undertheorized. We offer a framework that (a) conceptualizes populism and its progression over time; (b) outlines the risks populism generates for firms; and (c) theorizes effective nonmarket strategies under populism. Our framework anchors the political risk profile of populism in three interdependent elements: anti-establishment ideology, de-institutionalization, and short-term policy bias. These elements jointly shape the policymaking dynamics and institutional risks for firms under populism. Our analysis shows how firms can calibrate two nonmarket strategies – political ties and corporate social responsibility – to mitigate populism-related risks. We specify how particular configurations of political ties and CSR activities, aimed at the populist leadership, bureaucrats, political opposition, and societal stakeholders, minimize risk under populism. Further, we theorize how the effectiveness of specific attributes of political ties and CSR – namely their relative covertness (more vs. less concealed) and their relative focus (narrowly vs. widely targeted) – varies as a function of firm type (insiders vs. outsiders) and the probability of populist regime collapse. Finally, we address how motivated reasoning may bias firms' assessments of regime fragility and resulting strategy choices.

  • Antía, Florencia; Rossel, Cecilia; Karsaclian, Sofía (2024): Welfare conditionality in Latin America's conditional cash transfers : Models and trends International Journal of Social Welfare. Wiley. ISSN 1369-6866. eISSN 1468-2397. Available under: doi: 10.1111/ijsw.12677

    Welfare conditionality in Latin America's conditional cash transfers : Models and trends

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    To what extent have Latin America's Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programs adopted different forms of conditionality? What are the main features of this variation, if any? In this article, we show that conditionalities vary across Latin America's CCTs and across time within programs. Drawing on existing conceptualizations of welfare conditionality and a novel, purpose-built dataset covering 16 countries from 1997 to 2019, we analyze the evolution and variation in the design of welfare conditionality in the region. We find that conditionalities among Latin America's CCTs exhibit many different types and also vary significantly in how the program's main attributes—behavioral requirements, monitoring, and sanctioning rules—combine and evolve across time in each program. These combinations show that governments do not consistently produce “pure” CCT models but instead use conditionality features in many different ways and also adjust them over time, frequently to make more explicit what they expect from CCT recipients.

  • Bauer, Michael W.; Eckhard, Steffen; Ege, Jörn; Knill, Christoph (2024): Means of Bureaucratic Influence JÖRGENS, Helge, ed., Nina KOLLECK, ed., Mareike WELL, ed.. International public administrations in environmental governance : the role of autonomy, agency, and the quest for attention. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2024, pp. 27-56. ISBN 978-1-00-938351-6. Available under: doi: 10.1017/9781009383486.002

    Means of Bureaucratic Influence

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    This chapter investigates how formal autonomy and informal administrative working styles of international public administrations (IPAs) are interrelated empirically. Recent research on IPAs identified a paradoxical constellation. Some IPAs with low structural autonomy, such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Secretariat, are able to compensate this restriction by developing an entrepreneurial administrative style with emphasis on initiating new policies and sound internal management (paradox of weakness). Other IPAs, such as the formally autonomous European Commission, were found to anticipate member state control and voluntarily restrict themselves to a more passive servant style (paradox of strength). This finding raises the question whether the two paradoxes are idiosyncratic features of the two cases or a more universal phenomenon of international bureaucracies. To answer this question, this chapter introduces the concepts of structural autonomy and administrative styles and lay out a strategy for their measurement. It compares the empirical pattern of autonomy and style in eight IPAs. It concludes with some propositions about potential consequence for international bureaucratic influence.

  • Schönhage, Nanna Lauritz; Geys, Benny (2024): Partisanship, blame avoidance behaviours and voter reactions to allegations of political misconduct Electoral Studies. Elsevier. 2024, 87, 102742. ISSN 0261-3794. eISSN 1873-6890. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.electstud.2023.102742

    Partisanship, blame avoidance behaviours and voter reactions to allegations of political misconduct

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    Politicians often engage in blame avoidance behaviours in order to evade electoral punishment following allegations of misconduct. A key question concerns the (in)effectiveness of such behaviours in mitigating voter opinions about the alleged misconduct and the appropriate punishment. In this article, we examine how this (in)effectiveness may be shaped by: (1) the characteristics of blame avoidance behaviours, and (2) voters' partisan (mis)alignment with the alleged offender. We address this question using a between-subject survey experiment among a sample of Norwegian citizens (N = 1996). Our main findings suggest that blame avoidance behaviours can be effective in mitigating voters' assessment of the alleged misconduct and of the punishment the politician should face. This is particularly true when it concerns politicians from respondents' most-preferred party, and among left-wing voters. These findings help explain when and why scandals may (fail to) affect politicians’ electoral fortunes.

  • Are We Yet Sick of New Technologies? : The Unequal Health Effects of Digitalization

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    dc.contributor.author: Arntz, Melanie

  • Fliethmann, Anselm; Seibel, Verena; Degen, Daniel (2024): Deservingness Perceptions Toward Refugees : A Gender Perspective Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies. Taylor & Francis. ISSN 1556-2948. eISSN 1556-2956. Available under: doi: 10.1080/15562948.2024.2356664

    Project : Framing Inequalities

    Deservingness Perceptions Toward Refugees : A Gender Perspective

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    Refugee men are found to be less deserving of government support than refugee women. However, is this still the case if they engage in economic reciprocal behavior and attitudes? Following theories on gender stereotypes and benevolent sexism, we argue that economic activity is expected less of female than of male refugees and that this translates into gendered perceptions of deservingness of financial support. Analyzing data from a 2016 factorial survey experiment in Germany, we show that male refugees are more likely to get “punished” if unwilling to work. Future studies should thus include gender-related aspects when assessing deservingness perceptions.

    Origin (projects)

  • Exzellenzcluster „The Politics of Inequality“ (Eds.) (2024): (Un)gleiche Chancen

    (Un)gleiche Chancen

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    dc.contributor.editor: Exzellenzcluster „The Politics of Inequality“

  • Schmidt, Felix; Mangold, Frank; Stier, Sebastian; Ulloa, Roberto (2024): Facebook as an Avenue to News : A Comparison and Validation of Approaches to Identify Facebook Referrals Political Communication. Taylor & Francis. ISSN 1058-4609. eISSN 1091-7675. Available under: doi: 10.1080/10584609.2024.2342983

    Facebook as an Avenue to News : A Comparison and Validation of Approaches to Identify Facebook Referrals

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    Given that Facebook is still the most widely used social networking site in the world, its influence on democratic processes is under constant scrutiny. Academics have put a special focus on Facebook’s role in inhibiting or enhancing citizens’ news exposure. Recent studies using digital behavioral data have analyzed the prevalence and effects of “Facebook news referrals.” Using a web tracking tool that captures general browsing behavior as well as public posts seen on Facebook, this paper lays the groundwork for the field by assessing the validity of previously proposed operationalizations. We validate news referrals by investigating whether different measures actually reflect exposure to a news URL a user saw on Facebook. We furthermore assess the effects of news referrals on central outcomes in extant literature, contingent on different operationalizations. The results show that the most precise measure of news referrals are click identifiers attached to news URLs by Facebook. Different operationalizations of referrals have theoretically impactful consequences for the substantive understanding of Facebook’s role in high-choice online environments. The paper demonstrates the need for academics to constantly innovate in order to measure citizens’ online behavior in an ecologically valid manner.

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