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  • Organized Labor Versus Robots? : Evidence from Micro Data

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    dc.contributor.author: Dauth, Wolfgang

  • Invernizzi, Alessia; Klöckner, Ann-Cathrin; Schneider, Gerald (2024): Mission partly accomplished : European Union Politics at 25 European Union Politics. Sage. 2024, 25(1), S. 3-16. ISSN 1465-1165. eISSN 1741-2757. Verfügbar unter: doi: 10.1177/14651165231217699

    Mission partly accomplished : European Union Politics at 25

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    In this article, we analyze how European Union Politics has evolved over the last 25 years. Our analysis demonstrates that the goals the editorial team has pursued over this quarter century have only partly been reached. While the journal has helped to consolidate EU studies as a field of research in its own rights, several problems of representation persist in the journal and the social sciences in general. We identify besides the well-known gender gap that especially authors from the (European) South and East continue to be underrepresented in submitted and published articles. While less represented and successful at the submission stage, our results show that female scholars are more likely than male author teams to publish high-impact articles. Our findings indicate that studies of political behavior, broadly conceived, and articles using quantitative methods are well-represented. The article concludes with some remarks on how the journal might help to further professionalize the study of the EU in the coming years.

  • Beiser-McGrath, Liam F.; Busemeyer, Marius R. (2023): Carbon inequality and support for carbon taxation European Journal of Political Research. Wiley. ISSN 0304-4130. eISSN 1475-6765. Available under: doi: 10.1111/1475-6765.12647

    Carbon inequality and support for carbon taxation

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    Stringent policies that significantly increase the cost of greenhouse gas emissions, such as CO2, are increasingly necessary for mitigating climate change. Yet while richer individuals in society generate the most CO2 emissions and thus will face the largest absolute cost burden, they also tend to be more supportive of stringent environmental policies. In this paper, we examine how information about the distribution of carbon emissions by income affects support for carbon taxation. While carbon taxation is widely advocated as the most efficient policy for mitigating climate change, it faces significant political hurdles due to its distributional costs. Using original survey data, with an embedded experiment, we find that providing information about the actual distribution of household CO2 emissions by income significantly changes individuals' support for carbon taxation. These effects are particularly pronounced at the bottom of the household income distribution, leading to increased support for costly climate policies. However, individuals who believe that carbon taxes will reduce their income continue to hold their level of support for carbon taxation. Our findings have significant implications for understanding the public's response to the distributional consequences of the green transitions and ultimately their political feasibility.

  • Lauterbach, Ann Sophie; Tober, Tobias; Kunze, Florian; Busemeyer, Marius R. (2023): Can welfare states buffer technostress? : Income and technostress in the context of various OECD countries PLOS ONE. Public Library of Science (PLoS). 2023, 18(12), e0295229. eISSN 1932-6203. Available under: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0295229

    Can welfare states buffer technostress? : Income and technostress in the context of various OECD countries

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    Many workers are experiencing the downsides of being exposed to an overload of information and communication technology (ICT), highlighting the need for resources to cope with the resulting technostress. This article offers a novel cross-level perspective on technostress by examining how the context of the welfare state influences the relationship between income and technostress. Showing that individuals with higher income experience less technostress, this study argues that the welfare state represents an additional coping resource, in particular in the form of unemployment benefits. Since unemployment benefits insure income earners in the case of job loss, the negative effect of income on technostress should increase with higher levels of unemployment generosity. In line with these expectations, empirical results based on original survey data collected in collaboration with the OECD show that the impact of income on technostress varies across welfare state contexts. Implications for public health and policymakers are being discussed.

  • Holzer, Boris (2023): Der Aufstand der Abgehängten Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung. 3. Dez. 2023, No. 48, pp. 56

    Der Aufstand der Abgehängten

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  • Wie gelingt die Integration junger Zugewanderter in den Arbeitsmarkt? : Das Integration@Work-Projekt

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    Aktuell gibt es eine steigende Zuwanderung in den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt – nicht nur von Geflüchteten, sondern auch durch die aktive Anwerbung ausländischer Fachkräfte. Im Hinblick auf eine erfolgreiche ökonomische und soziale Integration spielt das duale Ausbildungssystem eine wichtige Rolle. Allerdings zeigen sich bei zugewanderten Auszubildenden deutlich höhere Abbruchquoten als bei Auszubildenden mit deutschem Pass. Besonders ausgeprägt ist das in Branchen, die stark vom Fachkräftemangel betroffen sind, wie im Handwerk oder den Pflegeberufen. In diesem Policy Paper werden Faktoren identifiziert, die die Integration junger Zugewanderter in den Ausbildungsmarkt verbessern und entsprechende Handlungsempfehlungen an Ausbildungsbetriebe und politische Akteure formuliert.

  • Holzer, Boris (2023): Rules and responsibilities : business and social norms in transnational governance ELIANTONIO, Mariolina, ed., Emilia KORKEA-AHO, ed., Ulrike MÖRTH, ed.. Research Handbook on Soft Law. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, pp. 132-144. ISBN 978-1-83910-192-2. Available under: doi: 10.4337/9781839101939.00018

    Rules and responsibilities : business and social norms in transnational governance

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  • Strauch, Rebecca (2023): Public opinion effects of digital state repression : How internet outages shape government evaluation in Africa Journal of Information Technology and Politics. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. ISSN 1933-1681. eISSN 1933-169X. Available under: doi: 10.1080/19331681.2023.2283011

    Public opinion effects of digital state repression : How internet outages shape government evaluation in Africa

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    Internet shutdowns have become a popular instrument for repressive regimes to silence dissent in a digitized world. While authorities seek to suppress opponents by imposing Internet outages, we know little about how the public reacts to such incisive measures. The regime might face anger and resentment from the public as a response to Internet deprivation. Why do regimes still use Internet shutdowns when they do not only face economic but also societal losses? In this paper, I argue that Internet shutdowns lower the public’s evaluation of the political leadership as citizens blame the government for the service outages. For the analysis, I combine fine-grained data on Internet outages with survey data from the Afrobarometer and apply an “unexpected event during survey design.” Results show that citizens do not hold the government accountable for Internet disruptions, thus making Internet shutdowns a powerful tool for autocrats to silent dissent digitally.

  • Holzer, Boris (2023): Die 1,5 Grad kamen nicht aus dem Norden Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung. 12. Nov. 2023, No. 45, pp. 60

    Die 1,5 Grad kamen nicht aus dem Norden

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  • Korman, Benjamin A.; Kunze, Florian (2023): Political context and immigrants’ work-related performance errors : Insights from the National Basketball Association PLOS ONE. Public Library of Science (PLoS). 2023, 18(11), e0289019. eISSN 1932-6203. Available under: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0289019

    Political context and immigrants’ work-related performance errors : Insights from the National Basketball Association

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    In numerous countries, both international migration and regional support for far-right political parties are on the rise. This is important considering that a frequent aim of far-right political parties is to aggressively limit the inflow of immigrants. Understanding how regional far-right political support affects the immigrants working in these regions is therefore vital for executives and organizations as a whole. Integrating political science research at the macro-level with stereotype threat theory at the individual level, we argue that regional far-right political support makes negative immigrant stereotypes salient, increasing the number of work-related performance errors conducted by immigrants while reducing those by natives. Using objective field data from a professional sports context, we demonstrate how subordinates’ immigrant status interacts with the political context in which they reside to predict their frequency of performance errors.

  • Employees’ perceptions of co-workers’ internal promotion penalties : the role of gender, parenthood and part-time

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    Much research has focused on penalties by gender, parenthood and part-time work for hiring processes or wages, but their role for promotions is less clear. This study analyses perceived chances for internal promotion, using a factorial survey design. Employees in 540 larger German (>100 employees) firms were asked to rate the likelihood of internal promotion for vignettes describing fictitious co-workers who varied in terms of gender, parenthood, working hours as well as age, earnings, qualification, tenure and job performance. Results show that promotion chances are perceived as significantly lower for co-workers who are women (gender penalty), mothers (motherhood penalty) and part-time workers (part-time penalty). Fathers and childless men (co-workers) are not evaluated differently (no fatherhood premium or penalty), and neither does part-time employment seem to be perceived as a double penalty for male co-workers. All three perceived promotion penalties are more pronounced among female employees, mothers, and part-time employees. These findings show that employees perceive differential promotion chances for co-workers which indicate actual differences due to discrimination, selective applications or structural dead-ends. Either way, perceived promotion penalties are likely consequential in guiding employee’s application behavior and hence can contribute to the persistence of vertical gender segregation in the labor market.

  • Korman, Benjamin A. (2023): The Rising Use of LSD among Business Managers Substance Use & Misuse. Taylor & Francis. 2023, 59(2), pp. 159-166. ISSN 1082-6084. eISSN 1532-2491. Available under: doi: 10.1080/10826084.2023.2267105

    The Rising Use of LSD among Business Managers

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    Background


    Although studies have demonstrated that the use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is on the rise in the United States, it remains unclear how this trend looks across the hierarchical ladder of the American workforce. This is relevant given that LSD is increasingly being touted as a means of boosting creativity and performance, with mounting anecdotal evidence that business managers in particular are turning to it for inspiration and insight.



    Methods


    Using pooled cross-sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2006–2014) on 168,920 adults in the United States employed full-time (weighted = 117,270,940), this study investigates how temporal trends in past year LSD use differ among business managers and non-managers.



    Results


    The results suggest that the prevalence of past year LSD use increased over time at a greater rate among business managers than non-managers and that this difference cannot be accounted for by changes in business managers’ perceived risk of LSD use or general substance use relative to non-managers.



    Conclusions


    The study’s findings indicate that temporal trends in past year LSD use depend on employees’ hierarchical rank in their organization and suggest that business managers, regardless of gender, are becomingly increasingly interested in the potential competitive advantages that LSD may offer.

  • Klos, Leon; Fiedler, Janis; Nigg, Carina; Burchartz, Alexander; Hinz, Thomas; Wäsche, Hagen; Niessner, Claudia; Woll, Alexander (2023): Physical environment perceptions in rural and urban areas and their influence on adolescents’ walking and non-motorized vehicle use European Journal of Public Health. Oxford University Press (OUP). 2023, 33(Supplement_1), ckad133.231. ISSN 1101-1262. eISSN 1464-360X. Available under: doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckad133.231

    Physical environment perceptions in rural and urban areas and their influence on adolescents’ walking and non-motorized vehicle use

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    The article describes differences in perceived environment attributes across urbanicity levels and assesses the relationship between perceived environment, walking and use of non-motorized vehicles (NMV) in adolescents in urban and rural areas.

  • Holzer, Boris (2023): Gleich ist nicht gleich gleich Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung. 10. Sept. 2023, No. 36, pp. 56

    Gleich ist nicht gleich gleich

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  • Wolter, Felix; Cohen Raviv, Or; Mertens, Maila (2023): Discriminatory Residential Preferences in Germany : A Vignette Study Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie (KZfSS). Springer. 2023, 75(3), pp. 263-288. ISSN 0023-2653. eISSN 1861-891X. Available under: doi: 10.1007/s11577-023-00906-2

    Discriminatory Residential Preferences in Germany : A Vignette Study

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    The article focusses on the generating mechanisms of residential segregation for the demand side of housing markets, i.e., discriminatory residential preferences of inhabitants regarding the composition of their neighborhood. The data stem from an online survey among a random sample of the population of a mid-sized German city. In a vignette experiment, respondents were asked to rate example residential settings with respect to their attractiveness. The settings varied regarding the ethnic and religious composition of the neighborhood and other neighborhood characteristics that are positively or negatively related to residential attractiveness.


    We find that respondents have discriminatory residential preferences toward migrants and the presence of a Muslim community in the neighborhood. One-half of the migrant effect is mitigated if other positively connoted residential characteristics exist. We take this as an indication for statistical discrimination. This does not hold for the “Muslim community” effect. Discrimination gets stronger with higher levels of perceived economic group-threat from migrants. We further find evidence for a cultural group-threat and for the contact hypothesis: religious people are more discriminatory than nonreligious people, and real-life contact with migrants entails less discrimination.

  • Schneider, Gerald (2023): Economics and Conflict : Moving Beyond Conjectures and Correlations SANDAL, Nukhet, ed.. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies. living reference. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2023. Available under: doi: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190846626.013.84

    Economics and Conflict : Moving Beyond Conjectures and Correlations

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    The theoretical and empirical literature on the reciprocal topics of economy and war have developed a fertile debate. Most contributions examine the liberal hope that growing economic bonds between or within nations reduce the risk of violent conflict, while an increasing number of studies also examine the destructive and redistributive effect of war, terrorism, and genocides. Most studies in the field do not provide clear micro-foundations for the opportunity-cost arguments that are typically made to justify the deterring effects of increased economic interactions. To move the field forward, contributions need to focus more on how the relationship between business leaders and the government shapes decision-making in periods of crisis. Recent advances have been made to understand the economic impact of massive political violence that can be better understood through the use of temporally disaggregated data.

  • Heermann, Max (2023): Undermining lobbying coalitions : the interest group politics of EU copyright reform Journal of European Public Policy. Taylor & Francis. ISSN 1350-1763. eISSN 1466-4429. Available under: doi: 10.1080/13501763.2023.2249948

    Undermining lobbying coalitions : the interest group politics of EU copyright reform

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    Recent studies show that, when salience is high, ‘heterogeneous lobbying coalitions’ uniting business and civil society groups are more successful in achieving their lobbying objectives than homogeneous coalitions. It is therefore surprising that a coalition of tech firms and civil society activists failed to prevent the adoption of the EU’s contested 2019 Copyright Directive, which constitutes a significant shift in the Union’s approach to online content regulation. This article argues that proponents of the policy change successfully undermined the lobbying coalition by invoking notions of ‘digital sovereignty’ and by delegitimizing activists as Silicon Valley’s ‘useful idiots’. Combining process-tracing of the lobbying processes and content analysis of European Parliament debates, the article shows how legislators employed delegitimation and sovereignty claims to justify their non-responsiveness to public protests. The article contributes to the interest group literature and debates on ‘digital sovereignty’ by demonstrating its strategic use in the policy-making process.

  • Marczuk, Anna; Strauß, Susanne (2023): Does context matter? : The gendered impact of study conditions on dropout intentions from higher education Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft. Springer. 2023, 26(5), pp. 1349-1371. ISSN 1434-663X. eISSN 1862-5215. Available under: doi: 10.1007/s11618-023-01175-7

    Does context matter? : The gendered impact of study conditions on dropout intentions from higher education

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    This paper aims to understand how study conditions impact men and women’s dropout intentions differently. As a first step, we analyse the gendered impact of three aspects of study conditions that were at the centre of the Bologna Process: achievement norms, the structure of the curriculum and practical components in the study programme. As a second step, we aim to understand how individual-level differences between men and women (performance, academic self-efficacy and perceived psychological burdens) mediate this gendered impact of study conditions on dropout intentions. We use the German Student Survey data (2000–2016), which allows for valid measurement of study conditions at the subject group level. Our results show that women’s dropout intentions tend to increase in study contexts with high achievement norms, while men benefit more than women from highly structured study contexts. The practical component, in turn, lowers the dropout intentions of both groups equally.

  • Andersen, Henrik K.; Mayerl, Jochen; Wolter, Felix; Junkermann, Justus (2023): Pseudo-Opinions in Online Surveys : Evidence to Recontextualize the Imputed Meaning Hypothesis Survey Research Methods. European Survey Research Association. 2023, 17(2), pp. 205-217. eISSN 1864-3361. Available under: doi: 10.18148/srm/2023.v17i2.7943

    Pseudo-Opinions in Online Surveys : Evidence to Recontextualize the Imputed Meaning Hypothesis

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    Pseudo-opinions refer to survey respondents giving answers to topics they are unfamiliar with. They are widespread but the reasons why respondents do not just admit they “don’t know” are not well-understood. We investigate the underlying mechanisms for pseudo-opinions in online surveys: do respondents satisfice and perform a “mental coin-flip,” or do they optimize and attempt to “impute a meaning” to the unknown question and answer accordingly? And can we reduce the prevalence of pseudo-opinions by expressing to respondents that it is okay not to have an opinion? To do so, we use fictitious issues. These are survey questions about nonexistent topics and things. We use response latencies as an indicator for the mode of responding, on a continuum from automatic-spontaneous to controlled-deliberate, to investigate whether pseudo-opinions are the result of satisficing or optimizing. We also conduct a survey experiment in which the presence of an explicit “don’t know” category is randomly assigned. The sample (n = 1288) consists of data collected in August 2019 from an online panel provider. The target population was defined as adults between 18–69 years old with internet access residing in Germany. Quotas were put in place for age and sex. We find pseudo-opinions are predicted by faster, automatic responses. This contradicts the widely-assumed imputed meaning model of pseudo-opinions. The presence of an explicit “don’t know” category reduces pseudo-opinions dramatically but does not moderate the effect of deliberate or automatic responding on pseudo-opinions.

  • Korman, Benjamin A. (2023): On the mushrooming reports of “quiet quitting” : Employees’ lifetime psilocybin use predicts their overtime hours worked Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. Taylor & Francis. ISSN 0279-1072. eISSN 2159-9777. Available under: doi: 10.1080/02791072.2023.2242358

    On the mushrooming reports of “quiet quitting” : Employees’ lifetime psilocybin use predicts their overtime hours worked

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    Despite the recent and sharp rise in psychedelic research, few studies have investigated how classic psychedelic use relates to employees’ work-related outcomes. This is surprising given that the increased use, decriminalization, and legalization of classic psychedelics in the United States (U.S.) has the potential to impact both employees and their organizations. Addressing this gap, the current study explores how employees’ lifetime psilocybin use relates to the amount of overtime they work, thereby offering insight into what current trends in psilocybin use could mean for businesses. Using pooled, cross-sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2002–2014) on 217,963 adults employed in the U.S. full-time, this study tests whether lifetime psilocybin use is associated with employees’ number of overtime hours worked in the past week. After adjusting for sociodemographics and other substance use, a significant negative association is found between employees’ lifetime psilocybin use and the amount of overtime they reported working. Specifically, the findings suggest that lifetime psilocybin use in the U.S. full-time working population is associated with an estimated 44,348,400 fewer overtime hours worked per year and may help explain recent findings linking employees’ lifetime psilocybin use to a reduction in sick leave taken.

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