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  • Thym, Daniel (2021): Dimitry Kochenov: Citizenship Zeitschrift für Ausländerrecht und Ausländerpolitik (ZAR). C.H. Beck. 2021, 41(10), pp. 378-380. ISSN 0721-5746

    Dimitry Kochenov: Citizenship

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  • Röper, Nils (2021): Capitalists against financialization : the battle over German pension funds Competition & Change. Sage Publishing. 2021, 25(3-4), pp. 428-452. ISSN 1024-5294. eISSN 1477-2221. Available under: doi: 10.1177/1024529421993005

    Capitalists against financialization : the battle over German pension funds

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    Despite renewed interest in the role of business in shaping the welfare state, we still know little about how factions of capital adapt their strategies and translate these into political infighting and coalition building. Based on a detailed process tracing analysis of the political battle over German pension funds, this paper shows that cleavages within business do not necessarily run along the lines of finance vs. non-finance. While ‘financial challengers’ (banks and investment companies) advocated financialized pension funds, ‘financial incumbents’ (insurers) defended a conservative understanding of old age provision. Tremendous political momentum towards financialization notwithstanding, challengers remained largely unsuccessful. Incumbents elicited support from the wider business community by adjusting their strategic goals and engaging in discursive reformulations to effectively fight pension financialization from within capital. To accommodate such competition politics and coalition building, the paper argues for a more dynamic understanding of business strategizing and highlights the importance of discursive political strategies. It shows that some capitalists may act as antagonists of elements of financialization and problematizes the actual mechanisms of coalition building through which business plurality affects political outcomes.

  • Bonner, Carissa; Trevena, Lyndal J.; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Han, Paul K. J.; Okan, Yasmina; Ozanne, Elissa; Peters, Ellen; Timmermans, Danielle; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J. (2021): Current Best Practice for Presenting Probabilities in Patient Decision Aids : Fundamental Principles Medical Decision Making (MDM). Sage. 2021, 41(7), pp. 821-833. ISSN 0272-989X. eISSN 1552-681X. Available under: doi: 10.1177/0272989X21996328

    Current Best Practice for Presenting Probabilities in Patient Decision Aids : Fundamental Principles

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    Background
    Shared decision making requires evidence to be conveyed to the patient in a way they can easily understand and compare. Patient decision aids facilitate this process. This article reviews the current evidence for how to present numerical probabilities within patient decision aids.

    Methods
    Following the 2013 review method, we assembled a group of 9 international experts on risk communication across Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We expanded the topics covered in the first review to reflect emerging areas of research. Groups of 2 to 3 authors reviewed the relevant literature based on their expertise and wrote each section before review by the full authorship team.

    Results
    Of 10 topics identified, we present 5 fundamental issues in this article. Although some topics resulted in clear guidance (presenting the chance an event will occur, addressing numerical skills), other topics (context/evaluative labels, conveying uncertainty, risk over time) continue to have evolving knowledge bases. We recommend presenting numbers over a set time period with a clear denominator, using consistent formats between outcomes and interventions to enable unbiased comparisons, and interpreting the numbers for the reader to meet the needs of varying numeracy.

    Discussion
    Understanding how different numerical formats can bias risk perception will help decision aid developers communicate risks in a balanced, comprehensible manner and avoid accidental “nudging” toward a particular option. Decisions between probability formats need to consider the available evidence and user skills. The review may be useful for other areas of science communication in which unbiased presentation of probabilities is important.

  • Thym, Daniel (2021): Supranational courts in Europe : a moderately communitarian turn in the case law on immigration and citizenship Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. 2021, 47(19), pp. 4534-4551. ISSN 1369-183X. eISSN 1469-9451. Available under: doi: 10.1080/1369183X.2020.1750353

    Supranational courts in Europe : a moderately communitarian turn in the case law on immigration and citizenship

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    Most interdisciplinary analyses intuitively depict the judiciary as an actor promoting post- or transnational conceptions of membership and equality in contemporary debates about citizenship and immigration. A qualitative survey of prominent judgments of two powerful supranational tribunals on five central themes identifies an intriguing twist in the case law. Over the past decade, the Court of Justice of the European Union in Luxembourg and the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg have frequently emphasised social affiliation with the host society, thereby cautiously embracing moderately communitarian narratives of membership, which tempered the traditional emphasis of both courts on equal treatment and residence security across borders. Institutionally, the outcome may be rationalised by a threefold limitation of the judicial function, which cannot bring about social change on its own, interacts with political actors and acknowledges the changing contours of the legal material.

  • Colas, Mark; Findeisen, Sebastian; Sachs, Dominik (2021): Optimal Need-Based Financial Aid Journal of Political Economy. University of Chicago Press. 2021, 129(2), pp. 492-533. ISSN 0022-3808. eISSN 1537-534X. Available under: doi: 10.1086/711952

    Optimal Need-Based Financial Aid

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    We study the optimal design of student financial aid as a function of parental income. We derive optimal financial aid formulas in a general model. We estimate a model of selection into college for the United States that comprises multidimensional heterogeneity, endogenous parental transfers, dropout, labor supply in college, and uncertain returns. We quantify optimal financial aid in the estimated model and find it is strongly declining in parental income even without distributional concerns. Equity and efficiency go hand in hand.

  • Maurer, Stephan E.; Potlogea, Andrei V. (2021): Male‐biased Demand Shocks and Women's Labour Force Participation : Evidence from Large Oil Field Discoveries Economica. Wiley. 2021, 88(349), pp. 167-188. ISSN 0013-0427. eISSN 1468-0335. Available under: doi: 10.1111/ecca.12341

    Male‐biased Demand Shocks and Women's Labour Force Participation : Evidence from Large Oil Field Discoveries

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    Do male‐biased labour demand shocks affect women's labour market outcomes? To study this question, we examine large oil field discoveries in the southern USA from 1900 to 1940. We find that oil wealth has an overall positive effect on female labour force participation that is driven by single women. While oil discoveries increase demand for male labour and raise male wages, they do not drive women out of the tradable goods sector or the labour force. Our findings suggest that the absence of any crowding out effects of oil wealth can be explained by compensating forces such as demand effects within the tradable sector, or by income effects that lead to growth in the non‐tradable sector.

  • Perception of Inequality and Social Mobility in Germany : evidence from the Inequality Barometer

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    The Inequality Barometer is an online survey first conducted in Germany in 2020. It gauges individual perceptions of multiple aspects of inequality and social mobility as well as a range of policy preferences related to inequality. Responses were collected for a representative sample of the German resident population. The total sample consists of 6000 respondents. This paper introduces the basic structure and content of the survey and provides a detailed description of the procedures and methodologies adopted in the survey. It further presents preliminary descriptive results from the survey's core module. Our results indicate that there are substantial differences between how people in Germany perceive different aspects of inequality and social mobility. In sum, we find that respondents underestimate the extent of inequality in important ways, which has critical policy implications for the future of the welfare state in Germany and elsewhere, in particular in the post-Covid era.

  • Die „Querdenker“. Wer nimmt an Corona-Protesten teil und warum? : Ergebnisse einer Befragung während der „Corona- Proteste“ am 4.10.2020 in Konstanz

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  • Di Nola, Alessandro; Kocharkov, Georgi; Scholl, Almuth; Tkhir, Anna-Mariia (2021): The aggregate consequences of tax evasion Review of Economic Dynamics. Elsevier. 2021, 40, pp. 198-227. ISSN 1094-2025. eISSN 1096-6099. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.red.2020.09.009

    The aggregate consequences of tax evasion

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    This paper studies how tax evasion in the self-employment sector affects aggregate outcomes and welfare. We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model with incomplete markets in which heterogeneous agents choose between being a worker or self-employed. Self-employed agents may misreport their business income but face the risk of being detected by the tax authorities. Our model replicates important quantitative features of the U.S. economy in terms of income, wealth, self-employment, and misreporting. Tax evasion alleviates credit constraints and leads to a larger self-employment sector but reduces the average size and productivity of self-employed businesses. Tax evasion generates positive welfare effects for the self-employed at the expense of the workers.

  • Yu, Qi; Fliethmann, Anselm (2021): Frame detection in German political discourses : How far can we go without large-scale manual corpus annotation? REHBEIN, Ines, ed., Gabriella LAPESA, ed., Goran GLAVAS, ed. and others. Proceedings of 1st Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Political Text Analysis (CPSS-2021). Duisburg-Essen: GSCL, 2021, pp. 13-24

    Frame detection in German political discourses : How far can we go without large-scale manual corpus annotation?

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    Automated detection of frames in political discourses has gained increasing attention in natural language processing (NLP). Earlier studies in this area however focus heavily on frame detection in English using supervised machine learning approaches. Addressing the difficulty of the lack of annotated data for training and/or evaluating supervised models for low-resource languages, we investigate the potential of two NLP approaches that do not require large-scale manual corpus annotation from scratch: 1) LDA-based topic modelling, and 2) a combination of word2vec embeddings and handcrafted framing keywords based on a novel, expert-curated framing schema. We test these approaches using a novel corpus consisting of German-language news articles on the "European Refugee Crisis" between 2014-2018. We show that while topic modelling is insufficient in detecting frames in a dataset with highly homogeneous vocabulary, our second approach yields intriguing and more humanly interpretable results. This approach offers a promising opportunity to incorporate domain knowledge from political science and NLP techniques for bottom-up, explorative political text analyses.

  • Bormann, Nils-Christian; Pengl, Yannick I.; Cederman, Lars-Erik; Weidmann, Nils B. (2021): Globalization, Institutions, and Ethnic Inequality International Organization. Cambridge University Press. 2021, 75(3), pp. 665-697. ISSN 0020-8183. eISSN 1531-5088. Available under: doi: 10.1017/S0020818321000096

    Globalization, Institutions, and Ethnic Inequality

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    Recent research has shown that inequality between ethnic groups is strongly driven by politics, where powerful groups and elites channel the state's resources toward their constituencies. Most of the existing literature assumes that these politically induced inequalities are static and rarely change over time. We challenge this claim and argue that economic globalization and domestic institutions interact in shaping inequality between groups. In weakly institutionalized states, gains from trade primarily accrue to political insiders and their co-ethnics. By contrast, politically excluded groups gain ground where a capable and meritocratic state apparatus governs trade liberalization. Using nighttime luminosity data from 1992 to 2012 and a global sample of ethnic groups, we show that the gap between politically marginalized groups and their included counterparts has narrowed over time while economic globalization progressed at a steady pace. Our quantitative analysis and four qualitative case narratives show, however, that increasing trade openness is associated with economic gains accruing to excluded groups in only institutionally strong states, as predicted by our theoretical argument. In contrast, the economic gap between ethnopolitical insiders and outsiders remains constant or even widens in weakly institutionalized countries.

  • Holzer, Boris; Sklair, Leslie (2021): Western Europe : planetary eurocentrism SKLAIR, Leslie, ed.. The Anthropocene in Global Media : Neutralizing the Risk. New York: Routledge, 2021, pp. 159-186. ISBN 978-0-367-37597-3. Available under: doi: 10.4324/9780429355202-11

    Western Europe : planetary eurocentrism

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    dc.contributor.author: Sklair, Leslie

  • When everyone thinks they’re middle-class : (Mis-) Perceptions of inequality and why they matter for social policy

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    Current levels of social and economic inequalities are an enduring challenge for policymakers concerned with sustaining high levels of prosperity and social mobility. Understanding which types of inequalities people in Germany regard as important is crucial. Using survey data, this paper presents evidence that misperceptions about inequality among the German population are common. Inequality is perceived as a problem and most respondents would prefer a more egalitarian society. However, people still underestimate the extent of inequality in important ways. This suggests that there is the potential for a policy agenda that emphasizes progressive and egalitarian policies. For such policies to gain public support, they should be tied to information on specific aspects of inequality.

  • Kulic, Nevena; Dotti Sani, Giulia M.; Strauß, Susanne; Bellani, Luna (2021): Economic disturbances in the COVID-19 crisis and their gendered impact on unpaid activities in Germany and Italy European Societies. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. 2021, 23(S1), pp. S400-S416. ISSN 1461-6696. eISSN 1469-8307. Available under: doi: 10.1080/14616696.2020.1828974

    Economic disturbances in the COVID-19 crisis and their gendered impact on unpaid activities in Germany and Italy

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    This article investigates whether changes in women’s and men’s contributions to household income in Germany and Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with changes in unpaid work. The current health crisis represents a unique opportunity to explore these topics, because the restrictive measures imposed during the lockdown are likely to have generated an unexpected shock to both domestic work and individual ability to contribute to household income. Using data from two novel datasets collected in Germany and Italy during the pandemic, this article shows that changes to both contribution to household income and unpaid activities during the crisis have been gendered, affecting women more negatively than men. In addition, we suggest that economic disturbances during the pandemic are associated with gendered changes in unpaid work that seem to be driven by changes in bargaining power in both countries. Our results also show some support for enhanced traditionalization of domestic life among German couples during the crisis, as predicted by gender display theories, albeit only regarding childcare.

  • The labor market integration of immigrant women in Europe : context, theory and evidence

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    Women represent an important component of the immigration population in Europe and have increasingly been a group of interest in academic studies, especially with regard to their integration outcomes. In this overview, we seek to provide a comprehensive resource for scholars of female immigrant labor market integration in Europe, to act both as a reference and a roadmap for future studies in this domain. We begin by presenting a contextual history of immigration to and within Europe since the Second World War, before outlining the major theoretical assumptions about immigrant women’s labor market disadvantage from economics and sociology. We then synthesize the empirical findings published between 2000 and 2020 and analyze how they line up with the theoretical predictions. We also present descriptive analyses with data from 2019, which expose any discrepancies between the current situation in European countries and the situation during the time periods considered in the reviewed studies.
    As a group, immigrant women are often reported to experience significant disadvantages in their labor market integration, both compared to immigrant men and to native women. However, this type of approach glosses over the substantial heterogeneity in immigrant women’s experiences. Instead, our overview points to a selective disadvantage for immigrant women that is highly dependent on their country of origin and the reception context they encounter after immigration.

  • Wolter, Felix; Diekmann, Andreas (2021): False Positives and the "More-Is-Better" Assumption in Sensitive Question Research : New Evidence on the Crosswise Model and the Item Count Technique Public Opinion Quarterly. Oxford University Press (OUP). 2021, 85(3), pp. 836-863. ISSN 0033-362X. eISSN 1537-5331. Available under: doi: 10.1093/poq/nfab043

    False Positives and the "More-Is-Better" Assumption in Sensitive Question Research : New Evidence on the Crosswise Model and the Item Count Technique

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    Several special questioning techniques have been developed in order to counteract misreporting to sensitive survey questions, for example, on criminal behavior. However, doubts have been raised concerning their validity and practical value as well as the strategy of testing their validity using the “more-is-better” assumption in comparative survey experiments. This is because such techniques can be prone to generating false positive estimates, that is, counting “innocent” respondents as “guilty” ones. This article investigates the occurrence of false positive estimates by comparing direct questioning, the crosswise model (CM), and the item count technique (ICT). We analyze data from two online surveys (N = 2,607 and 3,203) carried out in Germany and Switzerland. Respondents answered three questions regarding traits for which it is known that their prevalence in reality is zero. The results show that CM suffers more from false positive estimates than ICT. CM estimates amount to up to 15 percent for a given true value of zero. The mean of the ICT estimates is not significantly different from zero. We further examine factors causing the biased estimates of CM and show that speeding through the questionnaire (random answering) and problems with the measurement procedure—namely regarding the unrelated questions—are responsible. Our findings suggest that CM is problematic and should not be used or evaluated without the possibility of accounting for false positives. For ICT, the issue is less severe.

  • Roessler, Martin; Zwerschke, Patrick; Old, Jonathan (2021): Democracy and the Transnational Dimensions of Low-Level Conflict and State Repression International Studies Quarterly. Oxford University Press. 2021, 65(3), pp. 753-767. ISSN 0020-8833. eISSN 1468-2478. Available under: doi: 10.1093/isq/sqab038

    Democracy and the Transnational Dimensions of Low-Level Conflict and State Repression

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    This paper examines the transnational dimensions of low-level conflict and state repression. In this regard, special emphasis is placed on the role of political regimes. Drawing on a simple model, we argue that democracy has opposing effects on conflict intensity. On one hand, democracy satisfies demand for political participation and thus reduces conflict potential, while, on the other hand, we highlight that domestic democracy may spur dissatisfaction and conflict abroad, which, in turn, may induce conflict spillovers. As a result, the net effect of democracy on low-level conflict and state repression is ambiguous and depends on the level of democracy in the neighborhood: We predict that democracy is more pacifying in democratic environments and may spur conflict in autocratic environments. By the symmetry of the model, we also predict that democratic environments are more pacifying for democratic countries and may spur conflict in autocracies. Empirical evidence using panel data on different types of low-level conflict and state repression for 160 countries in the period from 1950 to 2011 supports these hypotheses. Additionally, two case studies illustrate the mechanisms of our model.

  • Exzellenzcluster „The Politics of Inequality“ (Eds.) (2021): COVID-19 und Ungleichheit

    COVID-19 und Ungleichheit

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    dc.contributor.editor: Exzellenzcluster „The Politics of Inequality“

  • Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Diehl, Claudia; Giesecke, Johannes; Kroh, Martin (Eds.) (2021): Special Issue: Employment and Family Behavior after Migration : The Experience of First Generation Female Migrants

    Special Issue: Employment and Family Behavior after Migration : The Experience of First Generation Female Migrants

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    dc.contributor.editor: Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Giesecke, Johannes; Kroh, Martin

  • Vertrauen ist gut, Replikation ist besser : Für eine evidenz-basierte Asylpolitik : Replik auf Ursula Gräfin Praschma

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    Diese Replik setzt sich mit dem ZAR-Aufsatz von Ursula Gräfin Praschma auseinander, in dem die Vizepräsidentin des Bundesamts für Migration und Flüchtlinge (BAMF) wissenschaftlichen Studien zu regional divergierenden Entscheidungspraktiken im deutschen Asylsystem ihre Gültigkeit abgesprochen hat. Der Artikel zeigt, dass weiterhin beachtliche Ungleichheiten im Asylvollzug bestehen. Der Verfasser argumentiert, dass die Darlegungen der BAMF-Vizepräsidentin nicht unabhängig validierbar sind und so nicht die wissenschaftlichen Gütekriterien erfüllen, denen auch publizierte Auswertungen des BAMF genügen müssen. Der Autor plädiert für eine evidenzbasierte Asylpolitik, zu welcher der institutionalisierte Zugang zu Asylstatistiken, die öffentliche Darlegung zentraler Verteilungs- und Entscheidungspraktiken wie auch die transparente Darstellung BAMF-interner Analysen zu Schutzquotenabweichungen gehören.

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